Abstract: Because of the smaller size of mobile devices, text entry with on-screen keyboards becomes inefficient. Therefore, we present CamK, a camera-based text-entry method, which can use a panel (e.g., a piece of paper) with a keyboard layout to input text into small devices. With the built-in camera of the mobile device, CamK captures images during the typing process and utilizes image processing techniques to recognize the typing behavior, i.e., extract the keys, track the user's fingertips, detect and locate keystrokes. To achieve high accuracy of keystroke localization and low false positive rate of keystroke detection, CamK introduces the initial training and online calibration. To reduce the time latency, CamK optimizes computation-intensive modules by changing image sizes, focusing on target areas, introducing multiple threads, removing the operations of writing or reading images. Finally, we implement CamK on mobile devices running Android. Our experimental results show that CamK can achieve above 95% accuracy in keystroke localization, with only a 4.8% false positive rate. When compared with on-screen keyboards, CamK can achieve a 1.25X typing speedup for regular text input and 2.5X for random character input. In addition, we introduce word prediction to further improve the input speed for regular text by 13.4%.